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Shep-en-Isis (Schepenese) in St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek

Cover Vorderseite preview.JPG

The Forensic Facial Reconstruction of Shep-en-Isis


Shep-en-Isis, a mummy from Ancient Egypt, has been in St. Gallen since 1820. She has the reputation of being the most famous mummy in Switzerland and is kept in the monastery library. For the first time, her face has been reconstructed using modern forensic methods.

ISBN: 978-3-754938-32-4

Erhältlich bei / available:





Lehmanns (Schweiz)

Orell Füssli 

Phase 13 Shep_en_Isis-Steps_2.jpg

The forensic facial reconstruction was carried out by Cicero Moraes, one of the world's leading experts, on behalf of the FAPAB Research Center and the St. Gall Abbey Library

Die Mumie von Schepenese befindet sich seit 1820 in der Schweiz und sie gilt als die bekannteste Ägyptische Mumie in der Schweiz.

Zu ihren Särgen, der Geschichte ihrer Ankunft, Untersuchungen und der Mumie existiert seit 1998 eine deutschsprachige Monographie

Peter Müller, Renate Siegmann: Schepenese. Die ägyptische Mumie in der Stiftsbibliothek St. Gallen

Das Buch ist noch erhältlich im Onlineshop

tsbibliothek St.Gallen

Schepenese Shep-en-Isis Phase 1 Mumie digitales Skelettmodell
Schepenese Shep-en-Isis forensische Weichteilrekonstruktion
Schepenese Untersuchung Thoraxpakete
Schepenese Shep-en-Isis finale Geichtsrekonstruktion

Deutsche Ausgabe

Die forensische Gesichtsrekonstruktion der Schepenese

Erhältlich bei:



Schepenese Shep-en-Isis Rekonstruktion nach Manchester Methode

Mummy Cairo CG 61075 from KV 55 (Akhenaton?)

KV 55 skull side GE Smith 1912 (copyrigh

The mummy found in the Valley of the Kings in 1907 has remained controversial to this day. For one thing, who it was and how old the person had become. At the beginning, it was even assumed to be a woman because of the relatively wide pelvis.

Today it is beyond doubt that it is a man. The epiphyses of various bones are not yet completely ossified, the teeth only moderately worn. The external age classification ranges from 19 to more than 40 years, depending on the examination. 

The best anthropological studies favour a younger age at death of 20 to 26 years, often only up to 22 or 23 as an upper limit.

The age classification creates serious problems with the archaeological evidence, which clearly suggests the secondary burial of Pharaoh Akhenaten. 
Within the framework of the forensic facial reconstruction by the FAPAB Research Center, Cicero Moraes 2020-2021 reconstructed the skull in three dimensions based on the numerous published data and images.

KV 55 digital model of the skull  (C) Ci
KV 55 forensic modelling (Manchester met

In accordance with the recognised Manchester method, the eyes, muscles, fat pads and skin were then modelled on the skull model; the tissue thicknesses correspond to forensically determined mean values and were carried out blind-folded. Only the images, data and the information that it is an early-adult Egyptian.

Akhenaton KV 55 age comparison  (C) Cicero Moraes-

Because there was also debate within the team about the correct age, two variants were created: 20-25 years on the left, over 30 years on the right.

Echnaton Akhenaton Akhenaten Face reconstructionKV55.tif

Since the arguments in favour of an age of 22 are very good, it was finally decided to go for the younger option. Historically, it is admittedly problematic if Akhenaten had only lived to be 22. However, an identification as the younger brother Smenkhkare is just as problematic, since there is hardly any evidence for his existence and one strand of theory assumes that Queen Nefertiti may have succeeded Akhenaten as King Smenkhkare - this completely eliminates the possibility of a man Smenkhkare...

The only reliable representation - because it is inscribed with name and title - is the ink drawing in the tomb of the official Meryre II in Akhet-Aton. It is archaeologically documented but unfortunately destroyed today. It depicts King Smenkhkare (left) and Queen Meritaton behind him. The king has no male sexual characteristics and is even more feminine in shape than the queen. Therefore, it is hardly arguable that Smenkhkare was a man. 

Grab Merire II Semenchkare Meritaton Sca

Statuette of Nefertiti in Berlin, depicting her in advanced age

The resemblance with Smenkhkare is at hand

Miguel Hermoso Cuesta (ín_Nefertiti_caminando_05.JPG), Zuschneiden,

Anker 2

Unknown Woman from Royal Cachette DB 320


Skeletonized mummy of a young woman from the royal cachette Deir el-Bahari DB 320 (Cairo CG 61076)

G. E. Smith estimated her to be c. 21 years of age and dated her to the late 18th Dynasty (Amarna period)


Baqt face reconstruction (6).bmp
Baqt face reconstruction (7).bmp

Cicero Moraes modified a standard female head to a 3D model of CG 61076. She has an elongated skull similar to Tutankhamun or Akhenaton. The mandible of CG 61076 is also unusual for a female

Mummy Cairo CG 61076 Baqt potentially Baketaton or Ankhesenamunskull tissue final face reconstruction

Soft tissue was modelled on the skull following mean thickness at several anthropological measuring points.

The fact that the unknown woman comes from a royal cachette and is dated to the later 18th Dynasty makes her a potential candidate for an Amarna Princess. 

Possible candidated might be:

  • Meritaton

  • Baketaton

  • Ankhesenamun


We strongly suggest that her remains should be genetically tested and compared to the family members of Tutankhamun.

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Mummy Cairo CG 61076 Baqt potential Amarna princess     Face reconstruction
Anker 3

Queen Meresankh III (late 4th Dynasty)

Skull model for Meresankh III

Queen Meresankh III (Egyptian mr = s-ankh) was an Ancient Egyptian Queen of the 4th Dynasty (Old Kingdom,

lifespan c. 2620/10–2570 BC).


Her lifespan is reconstructed from the death date in her tomb (1st year,
Shemu-season, 21st day, probably under King Menkaure) and a new astronomical dating model, dating this year c. 2570 BC (Gautschy et al. 2017).


She was the daughter of Crown-prince Kawab (possibly a son of King Khufu or King Seneferu) and Queen Hetepheres II, a daughter of King Khufu.


She has an ususually broad head and elongated cranium, probably suffering from the rare Silent Sinus Syndrome.

Photographs of her skull were converted to a 3D model, reconstructing additional anthropological measuring points.

The facial reconstruction was made by using mean values for female soft tissue.


Skull model for Meresankh III
Meresankh III face reconstruction
Meresankh III face reconstruction

Reconstruction of the facial type of Queen Meresankh III. without any age signs as they are unknown. Dark eye colour was assumed due to her Egyptian origin. 

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